MI Skills – OARS
-Open-ended questions are questions that result in more than yes/no responses and elicit very specific pieces of information. Often these questions begin with the following: “What,” “How,” or lead off with the request, “Tell me…” or “Describe…” You use open-ended questions to encourage an open conversation about the person’s view of his/her commitment to change. In brief, by using open-ended questions, you give the person a wide range for discussing a topic of importance to him/her. They also show an interest in the person and provide both an expectation and an opportunity for a person to self-disclose.
-This skill focuses on your expressions of confidence in the person’s ability to achieve his/her goals. You may affirm a person in a variety of ways: a) using compliments or praise, b) acknowledging the person’s abilities that might promote change, and c) recognizing effort or small steps taken by the person to change. By complimenting, positively reinforcing, and validating the person, you foster the belief in the person that there is hope for positive change and it builds rapport. Can also be expressed with active listening such as nodding your head or making eye contact with the person.
-Reflective statements restate a person’s comments using language that accurately clarifies and captures the meaning of the person’s communications and conveys to the person your effort to understand the person’s point of view. You use this technique to encourage a person to explore or elaborate on a topic. These techniques include repeating exactly what the person just stated, rephrasing (slight rewording), or paraphrasing (e.g., amplifying thoughts or feelings, using analogy, making inferences).
-Listening reflectively is about being quiet and actively listening to the person, and then responding with a statement that reflects the essence of what the person said, or what you think the person meant.
*Summarize - Summaries serve several purposes:
-Communicate that you have tracked what the person said and that you have an understanding of the big picture.
- Help structure a session so that neither the person nor the DSP gets too far away from important issues and can help you link what a person just said to something he/she offered earlier.
- Provide an opportunity to emphasize certain elements of what the person has said. For example, providing summaries of the positive statements a client has made about change (change talk) gives the person another opportunity to hear what she or he has said in the context provided by DSP.
Summaries represent change talk statements (statements that people make that are in the direction of change) linked together by DSP reflection. After several minutes of using OARS, a summary could serve as a check to see if you are “getting” what the person is trying to relay.
13. Which of the following questions are open-ended: